CONCRETE FLOORS - 4) REALIZING A BOTTOM LAYER SUITABLE TO RECEIVE RESINS

Here below we analyze the following:

4.1.bonding base coats to be applied in the presence of anomalies on the substrate

4.2. bonding base coats to be applied according to the type of coating to be laid.

4.1 bonding base coats to be applied in the presence of anomalies on the substrate

4.1.1. Minimum compressive strength

 

Even if very rarely the compressive strength of a concrete industrial floor is too low for the installation of resins, however, there are some resin cycles especially designed for areas subject to high levels of stress (e.g.: coatings for the dairy sector on areas which will likely be subject to spills of boiling water, or industrial laundries coatings subject to strong thermal shock) that, to ensure good durability, need to be laid on very cohesive substrates.

In particular, we must pay attention when carrying out interventions in environments with old floors that have been subject to heavy loading for a long time, where the concrete has lost its initial characteristics of compression strength and cohesion.

Resistance tests shall be carried out (even without the help of professional equipment) to verify the situation (a mallet is sufficient).

In case of obvious weakness, there are two possible ways to proceed:

a) to realize a new composite concrete slab over the existing one using either R35 concrete or higher strength concrete, after removing the superficial layer of the already existing casting through scarification and then making the new casting adhere using the structural epoxy adhesive NORPHEN RICRETE;

b) to realize an approx. 1 cm. thick Epoxy Screed, after scarifying the casting and after deeply impregnating using NORPHEN FONDO SL diluted 20-30 up to 505% with a specific solvent.

 

4.1.2. Residual moisture

4.1.2.a. less than or equal to 3%

For the installation of "normal" resins (resins without solvents, no water based) the residual moisture, calculated in the corners of the areas where there is less air movement, may not exceed 3%, measured according to the calcium carbide method.

 

4.1.2.b. greater than 3% but less than 6%

To be able to proceed with the installation with a percentage of humidity ranging from 3 and 6% it is sufficient:

a) to apply a coat of SOLID with a roller (approx. 300 gr / sqm) broadcast with quartz sand supplied for the following application cycles:

  • NORPHEN 200
  • NORPHEN 200 FONDO
  • NORPHEN HCR 200 (in all its variants)
  • NORPHEN 200 FUEL
  • NORDPUR ESTERNI
  • NORDPUR INTERNI
  • NORPHEN ESC

 

b) on the concrete floor, after blasting, apply undiluted NORPHEN SW SOLID with a spatula loaded up to 50% with quartz 0.1-0.3 (approx. 600 gr / sqm) by broadcasting -wet on wet- approx 1 kg / sqm of sand quartz 0.3-0.9 to proceed with subsequent applications of:

  • DECORLITE
  • FARMACRETE
  • FLOOR L TRA
  • LEVEL CRETE
  • MALTA RAPIDA
  • NORPHEN LEVEL
  • NORPHEN MALTA BASE
  • NORPHEN W 3 COLORATO
  • RQ MASSETTO
  • STRATOFLEX PU

 

4.1.2.c. Greater than 6%

For installations to be carried out with a moisture level greater than 6%, a first coat of Q-PRIMER shall be applied followed by a Q-RASANTE skim coating for a consumption of at least 1.5 kg / sqm.

If the working process involves:

a) a thick floor like for instance:

  • DECORLITE
  • FARMACRETE
  • FLOOR L TRA
  • LEVEL CRETE
  • MALTA RAPIDA
  • NORPHEN LEVEL
  • NORPHEN MALTA BASE
  • NORPHEN W 3 COLORATO
  • RQ MASSETTO
  • STRATOFLEX PU

 

Q-RASANTE shall be broadcast to excess with quartz 0.3-0.9 wet on wet.

On the contrary, if the working process involves:

b) a thin film coating such as:

  • NORPHEN 200
  • NORPHEN 200 FONDO
  • NORPHEN 200 HCR (ALL THE VERSIONS)
  • NORPHEN 200 FUEL
  • NORDPUR ESTERNI
  • NORDPUR INTERNI
  • NORPHEN ESC

Q-RASANTE shall not be broadcast and the day after the surface should be washed with a solution of STRIPPER diluted 5 times in water, rinsed and allowed to dry.

****

4.2. Bonding base coats according to the type of coating

4.2.1. Film resin on concrete

4.2.1.a. Applying film resins on a screed with a moisture content up to 3% (measured calcium carbide)

It will be almost never possible to apply a resin film with a roller on a quartz finished concrete since the surface will be perfectly closed and smooth with a tendency to be slightly dusted Particular attention should be paid to the concrete with a colored quartz broadcast finish, because in this case even an acid wash may not be sufficient to allow the adhesion of subsequent products without solvents.

Then proceed according to the expected coating as indicated below.

a) NORPHEN 200 - NORPHEN HCR 200 (all versions) - NORPHEN 200 FUEL - NORDPUR INTERNI - NORDPUR ESTERNI (all versions):

  • carry out an acid wash taking care to spray directly on the surface either NORDECAL FORTE GEL (diluted with water) or undiluted NORDECAL FORTE; the product will immediately react with the concrete forming the foam, and then to increase its aggressive capacity it is appropriate to proceed with brushing with a single brush equipped with either nylon or carbon brush;
  • remove the mash formed then rinse and suck the resulting liquid.Wait until the next day for the installation.
  • For low-coverage shades, prior to the application of the above products, a coat of NORPHEN 200 FONDO shall be applied.

 

B) NORPHEN SW SMALTO - NORDPUR SW

  • ensure that the substrate is easily and quickly "wetted" by pouring half a glass of water onto the floor: if this happens it is possible to proceed with the application of the products without special preparation.
  • For low-coverage shades, prior to the application of NORPHEN SW SMALTO, a coat of NORPHEN SW FONDO shall be applied.

 

Note: in winter, check the temperature during working hours, taking into account that at night the central heating systems are turned off.

 

4.2.1.b. Applying film resin on a screed with moisture content ranging from 3 to 6% (measured at the calcium carbide)

NORPHEN 200 - NORPHEN HCR 200 (all versions) - NORPHEN 200 FUEL - NORDPUR INTERNI - NORDPUR ESTERNI (all versions):

  • carry out an acid wash taking care to spray directly on the surface either NORDECAL FORTE GEL (diluted with water) or undiluted NORDECAL FORTE; the product will immediately react with the concrete forming the foam, and then to increase its aggressive capacity it is appropriate to proceed with brushing with a single brush equipped with either nylon or carbon brush;
  • remove the mash formed then rinse and suck the resulting liquid.Wait until the next day for the installation.
  • apply a coat of SOLID with a roller and broadcast on the surface, wet on wet, the quartz sand supplied;
  • the next day proceed with the finishing coats;
  • for low-coverage shades, replace the laying of SOLID with a coat of NORPHEN SW FONDO.

 

NORPHEN SW SMALTO - Q_SMALTO - Q_SMALTO LC - NORDPUR SW:

  • check the wettability of the substrate as above;
  • if positive, directly proceed with the application of the products.

 

Note: while laying the first coat take care of carefully passing the roll with patience and "force" the wetting of the substrate.In winter, check the environment temperature and do not operate in small closed environment without ventilation.

 

4.2.1.c. Applying film resins on substrate with a moisture content of more than 6% (measured calcium carbide)

Use the Q series products

 

4.2.2.A-Thick resins on concrete (moisture content less than 3%)

Applying coatings of the series FLOOR L FLOOR - NORPHEN LEVEL - DECORLITE - LEVEL CRETE - STRATOFLEX - STRATOFLEX PU on a dry surface

When processing these self-levelling medium-thick coatings which are worked in self-leveling,it is possible to proceed as follows:

  • either diamond polishing or slight blasting;
  • to prepare a dose of NORPHEN FONDO SL (FONDO NORPHEN FIL) and add 50% of quartz 0.1-0.3;
  • to skim coat the surface, taking care to promote good wetting and saturate the surface;
  • wet on wet to slightly broadcast broadcast (1 kg / sqm) natural quartz sand 0.3-0.9.

Applying coatings of the series RQ SLAB - FARMACRETE - NORPHEN W3 COLOURAT on a dry substrate

They are medium / thick coatings processed like multi-layered coatings by broadcasting.They differ from the previous point in the roughening procedure:

  • blasting or slight scarification of the surface;
  • to prepare a dose of NORPHEN FONDO SL and add 30% quartz 0.1-0.3 and 50% natural quartz 0.3-0.9 .
  • to skim coat the surface and to spread with an approx.50 cm steel trowel (if necessary use spiked rollers to help spreading);
  • wet on wet to broadcast to excess natural quartz sand 0.3-0.9 for NORPHEN W3 and colored with the same colors of RQ MASSETTO and FARMACRETE finish;
  • the next day remove the excess quartz, sand and suck the dust.

 

4.2.2.B- Thick resins on concrete (moisture content greater than 3% and less than 6%)

 

Applying medium and medium / thick coatings of all types (FLOOR L TRA - NORPHEN LEVEL - DECORLITE - LEVEL CRETE - STRATOFLEX - STRATOFLEX PU - RQ MASSETTO - FARMACRETE - NORPHEN W3 COLORATO

Proceed as follows:

  • to carry out blasting or a slight scarification of the surface;
  • to apply a coat of SOLID, then broadcast as per Technical Data Sheet
  • to proceed with realizing the coating as per Technical Data Sheet for dry surfaces.

 

4.2.2.c-thick resins on concrete (moisture content greater than 6% moisture)

 

Applying medium and medium / thick coatings of all types (see above)

  • to carry out blasting or a slight scarification of the surface;
  • to apply one coat of Q-PRIMER with a roller, diluted in water as Technical Data Sheet;
  • to skim coat the surface with Q-RASANTE (A + B + C) for a consumption of approx. 1.5 kg / sqm;
  • wet on wet broadcast to excess either natural or colored quartz depending on the type of coating to be installed;
  • the next day remove the excess quartz, sand and suck the dust.

 

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4.3. Scratch-resistant and opacifier finish for film resins on concrete

4.3.1. Applying film resins with high aesthetic value and high scratch resistance

This is a typical feature of solvent-free coatings.

(It can be applied as a finish on all cycles of colored self-leveling coatings based on solvent free resins).

 

NORPHEN 200 HCR:

  • proceed as described in section 4.2.1.
  • during the last coat, prepare a dose of NORPHEN 200 HCR and add 2% of silica;
  • proceed with applying the mixture using a short hair roller for solvent, taking care not to exceed 70 - 80 grams of product per square meter.

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